Most kidney stones in Australia are Calcium stones, either Calcium Oxalate or Calcium Phosphate. Calcium stones account for over 90% of stones and are usually idiopathic – not caused by a specific disease process. Calcium stones are hard (like a rock) and cannot be dissolved. The composition of kidney stones generally does NOT relate to dietary intake.
Composition of Kidney Stones
- Calcium Stones
- Calcium Oxalate
- Calcium Phosphate
- Mixed Calcium Oxalate / Calcium Phosphate
- Uric Acid Stones – usually a genetic predisposition
- Struvite Stones – from recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
- Cystine Stones – rarely seen, associated with a genetic disease
- Xanthine Stones – very rare
- Stones caused by medicines (very rare) e.g. indinavir, sulfadiazine and triamterene.