Apart from imaging to confirm renal stones, other investigations are frequently performed. These include blood tests to check whether the kidney function is normal and to check the blood levels of Calcium and Urate which may predispose to kidney stone disease. If blood levels of Calcium are found to be elevated, a Parathyroid hormone level needs to be tested.
The urine is also checked to determine if there is evidence of blood in the urine or a urinary infection. Some urine infections are known to cause kidney stones.
Sometimes the urine is examined for the presence of abnormal crystals but this is of limited clinical use.
It is important to note that blood and urine tests cannot diagnose a kidney stone – only imaging can do this.